Our lab publishes research on (1) Rational Thinking, Decision-Making, and Cognitive Abilities, as well as (2) ADHD and Developmental Psychopathology. 

Rational Thinking, Decision Making, and Cognitive Abilities


Toplak, M. E. (2021). Cognitive Sophistication and the Development of Judgement and Decision-Making. Academic Press.

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Stanovich, K. E., West, R. F., & Toplak, M. E. (2016). The Rationality Quotient (RQ): Toward a Test of Rational Thinking. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

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Toplak, M. E., & Weller, J. (Editors) (2016). Individual Differences in Judgment and Decision Making: A Developmental Perspective. London: Psychology Press.

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Peer Reviewed Papers


Toplak, M. E. & Stanovich, K. E. (2024). Measuring rational thinking in adolescents: The Assessment of Rational Thinking for Youth (ART-Y). Journal of Behavioral Decision Making.

Stanovich, K. E. & Toplak, M.E. (2023) Actively open-minded thinking and its measurement. Journal of Intelligence. 2023; 11(2):27.

Toplak, M. E., & Flora, D. B. (2021) Resistance to cognitive biases: Longitudinal trajectories and associations with cognitive abilities and academic achievement across development. Journal of Behavioural Decision Making. 2021; 34: 344358. doi:10.1002/bdm.2214

Rizeq, J., Flora, D. B., & Toplak, M. E. (2021). An examination of the underlying dimensional structure of three domains of contaminated mindware: paranormal beliefs, conspiracy beliefs, and anti-science attitudes. Thinking & Reasoning, 27(2), 187–211. doi:10.1080/13546783.2020.1759688

Toplak, M. E., & Rizeq, J. (2020). Development of Judgment, Decision Making, and Rationality. Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Psychology.  doi:10.1093

Stanovich, K. E., & Toplak, M. E. (2019). The need for intellectual diversity in psychological science: Our own studies of actively open-minded thinking as a case study. Cognition, 187, 156–166. doi:10.1016/j.cognition.2019.03.006

Toplak, M. E., West, R. F., & Stanovich, K. E. (2016). Real‐world correlates of performance on heuristics and biases tasks in a community sample. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making. 30, 541-554, doi:10.1002/bdm.1973

Basile, A. G. & Toplak, M. E. (2015). Four converging measures of temporal discounting and their relationships with intelligence, executive functions, thinking dispositions, and behavioural outcomes. Frontiers in Psychology, 6:782. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00728

Sorge, G. B., Skilling, T. A., & Toplak, M. E. (2015). Intelligence, executive functions, and decision making as predictors of antisocial behavior in an adolescent sample of justice-involved youth and a community comparison group. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making. 28, 477-490. doi: 10.1002/bdm.1864*

Stanovich, K. E., West, R. F. & Toplak, M. E. (2014). Rationality, intelligence, and the defining features of Type 1 and Type 2 processing. In J. Sherman, B. Gawronski, & Y. Trope (Eds.), Dual processes in social psychology. New York: Guildford Publications Inc. doi:10.5406

Toplak, M. E., West, R. F., & Stanovich, K. E. (2014). Rational thinking and cognitive sophistication: Development, cognitive abilities, and thinking dispositions. Developmental Psychology, 50(4), 1037-1048. doi:10.1037/a0034910

Toplak, M. E., West, R. F., & Stanovich, K. E. (2014). Assessing the development of rationality. In H. Markovits (Ed.), The developmental psychology of reasoning and decision-making (pp. 7-35). Psychology Press. doi:10.4324/9781315856568

Toplak, M. E., West, R. F., & Stanovich, K. E. (2014). Assessing miserly information processing: An expansion of the Cognitive Reflection Test. Thinking and Reasoning, 20, 147-168. doi:10.1080/13546783.2013.844729

Stanovich, K. E., West, R. F., & Toplak, M. E. (2013). Myside bias, rational thinking, and intelligence. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 22(4), 259-264. doi:10.1177/0963721413480174

Toplak, M. E., West, R. F., & Stanovich, K. E. (2013). Practitioner review: Do performance-based measures and ratings of executive function assess the same construct? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 54, 131-143. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12001

Stanovich, K. E., & Toplak, M. E. (2012). Defining features versus incidental correlates of Type 1 and Type 2 processing. Mind and Society, 11, 3-13. doi:10.1007/s11299-011-0093-6

Toplak, M. E., West, R. F., & Stanovich, K. E. (2012). Education for rational thought. In J. Kirby and M. Lawson (Eds.), Enhancing the quality of learning: Dispositions, instruction, and learning processes (pp. 51-92). New York: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CBO9781139048224.006

Stanovich, K. E., West, R. F. & Toplak, M. E. (2012). Judgment and decision making in adolescence: Separating intelligence from rationality. In V. F. Reyna, S. Chapman, M. Dougherty, & J. Confrey (Eds.), The adolescent brain: Learning, reasoning, and decision-making (pp. 337-378). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. doi:10.1037/13493-012

Toplak, M. E., West, R. F., & Stanovich, K. E. (2011). The Cognitive Reflection Test as a predictor of performance on heuristics and biases tasks. Memory & Cognition, 39, 1275-1289. doi:10.3758/s13421-011-0104-1

Stanovich, K. E., West, R. F., & Toplak, M. E. (2011). The complexity of developmental predictions from dual process models. Developmental Review, 31, 103-118. doi:10.1016/j.dr.2011.07.003

Stanovich, K. E., West, R. F. & Toplak, M. E. (2011). The assessment of rational thought. In K. E. Stanovich, Rationality and the reflective mind. New York, NY: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1080/00461520.2015.1125787

Stanovich, K. E., West, R. F., & Toplak, M. E. (2011). Intelligence and rationality. In R. J. Sternberg & S. B. Kaufman (Eds.), Cambridge handbook of intelligence (pp. 784-826). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511977244.040

Stanovich, K. E., West, R. F., & Toplak, M. E. (2011). Individual differences as essential components of heuristics and biases research. In K. Manktelow, D. Over, & S. Elqayam (Eds.), The science of reason (pp. 355-396). New York: Psychology Press.

Toplak, M. E., Sorge, G. B., Benoit, A., West, R. F., & Stanovich, K. E. (2010). Decision-making and cognitive abilities: A review of associations between Iowa Gambling Task performance, executive functions, and intelligence. Clinical Psychology Review, 30, 562-581. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2010.04.002

Stanovich, K. E., Toplak, M. E., & West, R. F. (2010). Contaminated mindware: Thinking biases of the cognitive miser. Rotman Magazine, Winter, 16-21.

Shuster, J., & Toplak, M. E. (2009). Executive and motivational inhibition: associations with measures of everyday inhibition. Consciousness and Cognition, 18, 471-480. doi:10.1016/j.concog.2009.01.004

West, R. F., Toplak, M. E., & Stanovich, K. E. (2008). Heuristics and biases as measures of critical thinking: Associations with cognitive ability and thinking dispositions. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100, 930-941. doi:10.1037/a0012842

Stanovich, K. E., Toplak, M. E., & West, R. F. (2008). The development of rational thought: A taxonomy of heuristics and biases. In R. V. Kail (Ed), Advances in Child Development and Behavior (pp. 251-285).San Diego, CA: Elsevier Academic Press. doi:10.1016/S0065-2407(08)00006-2

Wickens, C. M., Toplak, M. E., & Wiesenthal, D. L. (2008). Heuristic and analytic processes as predictors of driving errors, lapses, and violations. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 40, 1223-1233. doi:10.1016/j.aap.2008.01.006

Toplak, M. E., Liu, E., Macpherson, R., Toneatto, T., & Stanovich, K. E. (2007). The reasoning skills and thinking dispositions of problem gamblers: A dual-process taxonomy. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 20, 103-124. doi:10.1002/bdm.544

Toplak, M. E., & Stanovich, K. E. (2003). Associations between myside bias on an informal reasoning task and amount of post-secondary education. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 17, 851-860. doi:10.1002/acp.915

Kokis, J. V., Macpherson, R., Toplak, M. E., West, R., F., & Stanovich, K. E. (2002). Heuristic and analytic processing: Age trends and associations with cognitive ability. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 83, 26-52. doi:10.1016/S0022-0965(02)00121-2

Toplak, M. E., & Stanovich, K. E. (2002). The domain specificity and generality of disjunctive reasoning: Searching for a generalizable critical thinking skill. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94, 197-209. doi:10.1037/0022-0663.94.1.197

ADHD and Developmental Psychopathology

Peer Reviewed Papers

Lyon*, R. E., Rizeq, J., Flora, D. B., Martinussen, R., Andrade, B. F., & Toplak, M. E. (2022). Age-related variance in performance versus ratings of attention and impulse regulation in children: Implications for the assessment of ADHD. Brain Sciences12(8), 1033. MDPI AG. DOI: 10.3390/brainsci12081033.

Espinet, S. D., Graziosi*, G., Toplak, M. E., Hesson, J., & Minhas, P. (2022). A review of Canadian diagnosed ADHD prevalence and incidence estimates published in the past decade. Brain Sciences, 12(8), 1051. DOI: 10.3390/brainsci12081051.

Deotto*, A., Eastwood, J. D., & Toplak, M. E. (2022). Temperament profiles associated with internalizing symptoms and externalizing behavior in adolescents with ADHD. Child Psychiatry & Human Developnt. DOI: 10.1007/s10578-020-01116-z.

Rizeq, J., Toplak, M. E., Ledochowski, J., Basile, A., & Andrade, B. F. (2020). Callous-Unemotional Traits and Executive Functions are Unique Correlates of Disruptive Behavior in Children. Developmental Neuropsychology, 45(3), 154–166. doi:10.1080/87565641.2020.1737698

Toplak, M. E., & LeGris, J. (2020). Introduction to Special Issue: ADHD Research in a Canadian Context. Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 29, 2–3.

Hsu, C.-F., Eastwood, J. D., Toplak, M. E., Liang, J.-C., Hwang-Gu, S.-L., & Chen, V. C.-H. (2020). Trait and state boredom: Associations with attention failure in children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Psychiatry Research, 286, 112861. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2020.112861

Dentakos, S., Saoud, W., Ackerman, R. et al. Does domain matter? Monitoring accuracy across domains. Metacognition Learning 14, 413–436 (2019). doi:10.1007/s11409-019-09198-4

Bambrah, V., Hsu, C.-F., Toplak, M. E., & Eastwood, J. D. (2019). Anticipated, experienced, and remembered subjective effort and discomfort on sustained attention versus working memory tasks. Consciousness and Cognition, 75, 102812. doi:10.1016/j.concog.2019.102812

Wanstall, E. A., Doidge, J., Weiss, J., & Toplak, M. E. (2019). Estimations of Competence in Neurodevelopmental Conditions: A Review. Psihologijske teme, 28 (1), 193-232. doi:10.31820/pt.28.1.10

Ledochowski, J., Andrade, B. F., & Toplak, M. E. (2019) A novel unstructured performance-based task of executive function in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 41:5, 445-459, doi:10.1080/13803395.2019.1567694

Doidge, J. L., Flora, D. B., & Toplak, M. E. (2021). A Meta-Analytic Review of Sex Differences on Delay of Gratification and Temporal Discounting Tasks in ADHD and Typically Developing Samples. Journal of Attention Disorders, 25(4), 540–561. doi:10.1177/1087054718815588

Basile, A., Toplak, M. E., & Andrade, B. F. (2021). Using Metacognitive Methods to Examine Emotion Recognition in Children With ADHD. Journal of Attention Disorders, 25(2), 245–257. doi:10.1177/1087054718808602

Hsu, C. F., Propp, L., Panetta, L., Martin, S., Dentakos, S., Toplak, M. E., & Eastwood, J. D. (2018). Mental effort and discomfort: Testing the peak-end effect during a cognitively demanding task. PLoS One, 13(2), e0191479. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0191479

Rizeq, J., Flora, D. B., & Toplak, M. E. (2017). Changing relations among cognitive abilities across development: Implications for measurement and research. Clinical Neuropsychologist. doi:10.1080/13854046.2017.1317034

Hsu, C.F., Eastwood, J. D., & Toplak, M. E. (2017). Differences in perceived mental effort required and discomfort during a working memory task between individuals at-risk and not at-risk for ADHD. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 407. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00407

Ilie, Gabriela, Vingilis, E. R., Mann, R. E., Hamilton, H., Toplak, M. E., Adlaf, E. M., Kolla, N., Ialomiteanu, A., van der Mass, Asbridge, M., Vingilis-Jaremko, L., Rehm, J., & Cusimano, M. D. (2015). The association between traumatic brain injury and ADHD in a Canadian adult sample. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 69, 174-179. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychires.2015.08.004

Vingilis, E., Erickson, P. G., Toplak, M. E., Kolla, N. J., Mann, R. E., Seeley, J., vanderMaas, M., & Daigle, D. S. (2015). Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms, comorbidities, substance use, and social outcomes among men and women in a Canadian sample. BioMed Research International. doi:10.1155/2015/982072.

Sorge, G.B., van der Maas, M., Flora, D.B., Vingilis, E., Mann, R. E., Erickson, P., Jain, U., Kolla, N., Seeley, J., & Toplak, M. E. (2015). Using factor analytic models to examine the association between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms and health-related outcomes in a representative population survey. ADHD Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders, 7(3), 225-235. doi:10.1007/s12402-015-0167-0.

Vingilis, E., Mann, R. E., Erickson, P., Toplak, M. E., Kolla, N. J., and Seeley, J. (2014) Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, other mental health problems, substance use and driving:Examination of a population-based, representative Canadian sample. Traffic Injury Prevention, 15:sup1, S1-S9, doi:10.1080/15389588.2014.926341.

LeGris, J., Toplak, M. E., & Links, P. S. (2014). Affective decision making in women with Borderline Personality Disorder. Journal of Personality Disorders, 28, 1-22. doi:10.1521/pedi_2014_28_140.

Shuster, J., Perry, A., Bebko, J., & Toplak, M. E. (2014). Review of factor analytic studies examining symptoms of autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 44, 90-110. doi:10.1007/s10803-013-1854-3

LeGris, J., Links, P. S., van Reekum, R., Tannock, R. & Toplak, M. E. ( 2012). Executive function and suicidal risk in women with Borderline Personality Disorder. Psychiatry Research, 196, 101-108. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2011.10.008

Toplak, M. E., Sorge, G. B., Flora, D. B., Chen, W., Banaschewski, T., Buitelaar, J., Ebstein, R., Eisenberg, J., Franke, B., Gill, M., Miranda, A., Oadea, R. D., Roeyers, H., Rothenberger, A., Sergeant, J., Sonuga-Barke, E., Steinhausen, H. C., Thompson, M., Tannock, R., Asherson, P., & Faraone, S. V. (2012). The hierarchical factor model of ADHD: Invariant across age and national groupings? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 53, 292-303. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2011.02500.x

Normand, S., Flora, D. B., Toplak, M. E., & Tannock, R. (2012). Evidence for a general ADHD factor from a longitudinal general school population study. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 40, 555-567. doi:10.1007/s10802-011-9584-5

Gibbins, C., Toplak, M. E., Flora, D. B., Weiss, M. D., & Tannock, R. (2012). Evidence for a general factor model of ADHD in adults. Journal of Attention Disorders, 16, 635-644. doi:10.1177/1087054711416310

Connors, L. L., Connolly, J., & Toplak, M. E. (2012). Self–reported inattention in early adolescence in a community sample. Journal of Attention Disorders, 16, 60-70. doi:10.1177/1087054710379734

DeBono, T., Hosseini, A., Cairo, C., Ghelani, K., Tannock, R., & Toplak, M. E. (2011). Written expression performance in adolescents with attention- deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Reading and Writing. doi:10.1007/s11145-011-9325-8

Rogers, M, Hwang, H., Toplak, M. E., Weiss, M., & Tannock, R. (2011). Inattention, working memory, and academic achievement in adolescents referred for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Child Neuropsychology, 17, 444-458. doi:10.1080/09297049.2010.544648

Toplak, M. E., Pitch, A., Flora, D. B., Iwenofu, L., Ghelani, K., Jain, U., & Tannock, R. (2009). The unity and diversity of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity in ADHD: Evidence for a general factor with separable dimensions. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 37, 1137-1150. doi:10.1007/s10802-009-9336-y

Toplak, M. E. (2009). Comment on: Am J Psychiatry, 2008 (June), 165, 721-730. Osmotically released methylphenidate is more effective than atomoxetine in children and adolescents with ADHD. Evidence-Based Mental Health, 12, 19. doi:10.1136/ebmh.12.1.19

Sorge, G. B., Moore, T., & Toplak, M. E. (2009). Comparing the content of parenting self-help programs to evidence-based parenting programs: Understanding the efficacy of self-help advice. The Scientific Review of Mental Health Practice, 7, 26-36.

Toplak, M. E., Bucciarelli, S., Jain, U., & Tannock, R. (2009). Executive functions: Is performance related to ratings in adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)? Child Neuropsychology, 15, 53-72. doi:10.1080/09297040802070929

Toplak, M. E., Connors, L., Shuster, J., Knezevic, B., & Parks, S. (2008). Review of cognitive, cognitive-behavioral, and neural-based interventions for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Clinical Psychology Review, 28, 801-823. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2007.10.008

Toplak, M. E., Dockstader, C., & Tannock, R. (2006). Temporal information processing in ADHD: Findings to date and new methods. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 151, 15-29. doi:10.1016/j.jneumeth.2005.09.018

Toplak, M. E., Jain, U., & Tannock, R. (2005). Decision-making and cognitive abilities in adolescents with Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Behavioral and Brain Functions. 1:8. doi:10.1186/1744-9081-1-8

Toplak, M. E., & Tannock, R. (2005). Tapping and anticipation performance in Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Perceptual and Motor Skills, 100, 659-675. doi:10.2466/PMS.100.3.659-675

Toplak, M. E., & Tannock, R. (2005). Time perception: Modality and duration effects in Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 33, 639-654. doi:10.1007/s10802-005-6743-6

Stringer, R., Toplak, M. E., & Stanovich, K. E. (2004). Differential relationships between RAN performance, behaviour ratings, and executive function measures: Searching for a double dissociation. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 17, 891-914. doi:10.1007/s11145-004-2770-x

Toplak, M. E., Rucklidge, J. J., Hetherington, R., John, S. C. F, & Tannock, R. (2003). Time perception deficits in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and comorbid reading difficulties in child and adolescent samples. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 44, 888-903. doi:10.1111/1469-7610.00173